2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
世安美學獎  << 回目錄頁
2001 世安美學學位論文獎            
透視的錯位與對位 (2001.6)
作者:林俐凱

目錄

圖表目錄
圖版目錄
第一章  緒論
 第一節  研究動機與目的
 第二節  研究對象及範圍
 第三節  文獻回顧
 第四節  研究方法
 第五節  章節內容概述
 第六節  名詞界定
第二章  拼貼世界
 第一節  我們的世界圖像
  I. 啟蒙或啟人疑竇
   1. 兩種「解放」
   2. 透視的符號意義
  II.「透視」作為「看的方式」
   1. 拼貼‧幻覺‧蒙太奇
   2. 其他藝術與科技的透視
 第二節  語言的秩序作為事物的秩序
  I. 符號與意義
   1. 藝術作為「傳達」
   2. 傳達的表義模式
  II. 符號表義之運作
   1. 語言表義之二軸
   2. 表義二軸在其他符號系統的體現
 第三節  符號詩學
  I. 藝術與異數
   1. 失語症及喻況語言的啟發
   2. 詩意功能及「對等原理」
  II. 從詩到畫
   1. 諷刺漫畫與真人的對等關係
   2. 中文單字的圖像組合:一則笑話的分析
   3. 拼貼的組合句法及其意義第四節  小結
第三章  拼貼畫面
 第一節  空間句法
  I. 線性透視的板塊錯位
   1. 立體派式的分割與拼貼
   2. 剪裁縫合的蒙太奇
   3. 曖昧的物體與歧義的空間
  II. 異尺度的並置
   1. 空間比例
   2.「風馬牛」的並置
 第二節  位置混淆
  I. 表裡關係
   1. 內外互滲
   2. 畫框的位置
  II. 對照關係
   1. 平行並列
   2. 諧擬組合
 第三節  邏輯混淆
  I.「非此即彼」的並置
   1. 無法自圓其說的空間
   2. 異時間景象的「重覆曝光」
  II. 組合秩序的「大風吹」
   1. 顛倒拼裝
   2. 鄰接關係轉移
 第四節  小結
第四章  拼貼詩學
 第一節  元素及其語境的錯位
  I.「錯誤」的「連連看」
   1. 直軸錯位:來自不同系統的加法
   2. 橫軸錯位:充分必要元素之抽離與置換
  II. 「大同小異」:比較之條件及其張力
  III. 二軸混合的錯位:對等原理二維投影模型
 第二節  對位:多義透視的複音
  I. 時間性:元素的重複與展開
   1. 畫面中的「押韻」
   2. 參差變奏:文本與紋理
  II. 同時性:同位置的重覆疊合
   1. 覆蓋
   2. 透明
  III. 對等原理三維投影模型
 第三節  框外對位
  I.「挪用」或「向大師致敬」?
  II. 投注自身的傳達媒介:「後設繪畫」
   1. 不盡責的框
   2. 不誠實的鏡子
 第四節  小結
第五章  結論
參考文獻
圖版說明
圖版
索引

論文提要

本文題目為「透視的錯位與對位:以奇里科與馬格利特之拼貼式物象為例的符號詩學」,是以作為觀看方式(ways of seeing)的廣義透視為基本關注,並由奇里科(Giorgio de Chirico)與馬格利特(René Magritte)拼貼式的繪畫出發,探究錯位(counter-point)與對位(counterpoint)作為拼貼的一種美學紋理。

「拼貼」(collage)的「不連續邏輯」及其所造成的轉喻式再現(metonymic representation),實亦為現今普遍生活情境。拼貼將矛盾並置(juxtapose)的透視,早已不囿於物理上的膠黏,而成為各類媒介所廣泛應用的手法。奇里科將彼此無關連的事物並置於一畫面所造成的詩意效果,啟發了許多畫家,馬格利特便是其中之一——恩斯特(Max Ernst)甚至稱馬格利特的作品為「手繪拼貼」(hand-painted collage)。為了進一步探究拼貼的詩意效果,本文採用了雅克慎(Roman Jakobson)對詩學的著名研究。雅氏結合索緒爾(Ferdinand de Saussure)所提出之表義二軸說,將詩意功能定義為「將選擇軸(axis of selection)上的『對等原理』(principle of equivalence)投影於組合軸(axis of combination)上,『對等』於是被提升為組合語串的構成法則」。貢布里希(Ernst Gombrich)受雅氏影響,便曾論及諷刺漫畫諧擬現實人物的對等關係,但並未做較深入與系統的研究。因此本文嘗試以奇、馬二人之繪畫為例,進一步探究拼貼中對等的詩意效果。

「對等」實包括了藝術作品各層面的對照與平行——可以是相反,也可以是相似;相反則矛盾,相似則重覆。在畫面中矛盾或重覆的,可以是透視系統、組合邏輯、空間安排、時間秩序等等。「矛盾」因其明顯違反「常識」,而予人突兀甚至不適感,但往往促使觀者回頭檢視人們習以為常而使人麻木的秩序及脈絡。此效果類似艾森斯坦(Sergei Eisenstein)主張的「蒙太奇即為衝突」——藉音畫「對位」來達成;但艾氏所謂之「對位」實非音樂對位法,而是著眼於其「點對點」、「反點」的字面意義,故本文將之改造為「counter-point」,也就是「錯位」。

而「重複(/覆)」的情形,本文則名之為「對位」(counterpoint),較接近音樂學之本義。「對位」可以是畫面構成元素藉由重複(repetition)與變奏(variation)所展開的節奏,使得平面繪畫抽繹出時間性的向度;其二,也可以是畫面元素的重覆(overlap,即重疊覆蓋)——畫面表層與裡層空間邏輯的曖昧,造成了半透明、同時性的效果,顯現出事物的多重面向,一如音樂對位法同時結合了數條旋律線;其三,甚至這重複與變奏還能夠越出畫框之外,藉由變造或挪用而與其他作品互文、對話,無論是作者先前的作品,或是前輩之作品,甚至揭示自身的構造過程而成為「後設繪畫」。

本文以貢布里希所提及之漫畫為例製成圖表以佐說明,在文中便可由圖表的演變演示出論述的推進。最後,本文提出一個三軸、三原色立體座標模型來作對等原理的圖解詮釋——模型中相異各點的座標值代表三軸交互作用的成分及程度,而體現為不同的混色比例組合。

Abstract

This thesis, The Counter(-)point of Perspectives: Toward a Semiotic Poetics of Collage-Like Images by Giorgio de Chirico and René Magritte, is based on the broad sense of perspective as ways of seeing, taking Chirico and Magritte’s paintings as examples, for investigating of counter-point and counterpoint as collage’s aesthetic texture.

Today collage is so deeply involved in our daily life that it goes far beyond its original meaning of glue-attached-collage.  By juxtaposing contradictions, the magic of collage enlightens almost all kinds of media.  The discontinuity of logic and metonymic representation are its main characters.

The poetic juxtaposition of things-not-in-the-same-context in Chirico’s pictures inspires many artists, and Magritte is one of them.  Max Ernst even took Magritte’s pictures as ‘hand-painted collage.’  In order to investigate the poetic function of those collages, we take Roman Jakobson’s famous poetics as our methodology.  Jakobson inherits Ferdinand de Saussure’s linguistic theory of ‘two axes of signification,’ claiming that ‘The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination.  Equivalence is promoted to the constitutive device of the sequence.’  Inspired by Jakobsonian theory, Ernst Gombrich once mentioned the equivalence between mock portraiture and the real person; however, he did not go further.  Therefore, here we take Chirico’s and Magritte’s pictures as examples to see more aspects of equivalent relations in collage.

‘Equivalence’ actually contains contrasts and parallels in different levels of art works—it could be opposition-antonym or similarity-synonym.  When the elements in a picture are ‘antonyms,’ there arises contradiction, and ‘synonyms’ repetition.  What contradictory or repetitive might be are the system of perspective, the logic of assemblage, the spatial arrangement and the time order, etc.  Because of its violation of the ‘common sense,’ such contradiction might sometimes shock people.  Thus people would more often than not be forced to reexamine whatever being taken for granted, and something new arises as well.  This effect is like Sergei Eisenstein’s poetics of montage—‘montage is conflict,’ achieved by the ‘counterpoint of sound and image.’  Yet the ‘counterpoint’ which Eisenstein defines here is not what it means in musicology; rather, it focuses on its literal meaning.  Therefore, here we rename it counter-point.

As for the case of repetition-synonym, we name it counterpoint, which is much closer to its musicological meaning.  What the poetics of counterpoint explores are the three aspects:  First, the repetition and variation of the elements, which might make up something like ‘rhythms’ and ‘rhymes,’ are illusions of the dimension of time—this is the synonymity of the elements.  Second, when the elements overlap, this spatial synonymity results in the logical ambiguity of surface-bottom relation, which causes the aesthetic effect of simultaneity and translucence.  It presents plural aspects of things, just as counterpoint combines several lines of melody in the same piece of music.  Third, this repetition and variation could go beyond the frame, intertext and dialogue with other works of art, either works by the same artist or those of the art history.  Or it could even be so self-conscious as to be like meta-painting.

We use some graphs to illustrate how the statements evolve. Finally, we demonstrate a 3-dimensional-and-3-colored co-ordinate system to make a visual interpretation of the principle of equivalence—in this model the primary color stands as the three axes, and the unique value of different position in this system represents as the unique proportion of color mixture, which reflects the degree to which each axis involves itself.

參考文獻

外文部份:
[Perspective-Representation ]

Alberti, Leon Battista. On Painting. Trans. Cecil Grayson. Introd. Martin Kemp. London: Penguin, 1991.
Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception. New version. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
——. Visual Thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.
——. The Power of the Center. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
——. New Essays on the Psychology of Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Belting, Hans. The End of the History of Art? 1984. Trans. C. S. Wood. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1987.
Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Illuminations. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken, 1968. 217-51.
Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: BBC and Penguin, 1977.
Damisch, Hubert. The Origin of Perspective. Trans. John Goodman. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994. Trans. of L’Origine de la perspective. Paris: Flammarion, 1987.
 Eisenstein, Sergei. Selected Works Vol. 1: Writings 1922-34. Trans. and ed. Richard Taylor. London: British Film Institute, 1988.
 ——. Selected Works Vol. 2: Towards a Theory of Montage. Trans. Michael Glenny. Ed. Michael Glenny and Richard Taylor. London: British Film Institute, 1994.
 Gablik, Suzi. Has Modernism Failed? New York: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
 ——. Progress in Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1977.
 Goldwater, Robert. Space and Dream. New York: Walker and Company, 1967.
 Gombrich, Ernst H. Art and Illusion. 1960. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.
 ——. The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. 1979. London: Phaidon, 1984.
 Goodman, Nelson. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1976.
 Hale, Nathan Cabot. Abstraction in Art and Nature. New York: Watson-Guptil, 1981.
 Heidegger, Martin. “Der Ursprung des Kunstwerks.” Holzwege. Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1950, pp. 7-68.
 Kemp, Martin. The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
 Kendall L. Walton. Mimesis as Make-Believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Krauss, Rosalind. The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1985.
Leonardo da Vinci. The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Compiled and edited from the original manuscripts by Jean Paul Richter. 2 vols. New York: Dover, 1970.
 Nelson, Robert S., and Richard Shiff, eds. Critical Terms for Art History. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1996.
 Panofsky, Erwin. Perspective as Symbolic Form. (German 1927). Trans. Christopher S. Wood, 1994. New York: Zone Books, 1991.
 ——. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Garden City: Doubleday Anchor, 1955.
 Rees, A. L. & Borzello, F. eds. The New Art History. London: Camden, 1986.
 Rodari, Florian. Collage: Pasted, Cut, and Torn Papers. Trans. Michael Taylor. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.
 White, John. The Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1958.
 Willats, John. Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.
 Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Trans. D. F. Pears and McGuiness. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961.
 Wöfflin, Heinrich. Principles of Art History: The Problem the Development of Style in Later Art. Trans. M. D. Hottinger. New York: Dover, 1932.
 Wolf-Devine, Celia. Descartes on Seeing: Epistemology and Visual Perception. Journal of the History of Philosophy Monograph Series. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.
 Worringer, Wilhelm. Abstraction and Empathy. (German 1911). New York: International University Press, 1953.

 [Semiotics-Poetics]

Bakhtin, Mikhail M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.
 Bal, Mieke. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1985.
 Bal, Mieke & Norman Bryson. “Semiotics and Art History.” Art Bullitin (June 1991): 174-208.
 Barthes, Roland. L’aventure Sémiologique. Paris: Seuil, 1985.
 ——. Systeme de la Mode. Paris: Seuil, 1967.
 ——. Image, Music, Text. Ed. and trans. Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.
 Bradford, Richard. Roman Jakobson: Life, Language, Art. London: Routledge, 1994.
 Bryson, Norman. Vision and Painting: The Logic of the Gaze. Yale University Press, 1983.
 ——. Looking at the Overlooked: Four Essays on Still Life Painting. 1990. London: Reaktion Books, 1995.
 ——, ed. Calligram: Essays in New Art History from France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
 Bryson, Norman, Michael Ann Holly & Keith Moxey, eds. Visual Theory. 1991. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996.
 Cassirer, Ernst. An Essay on Man:An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1944.
 Chomsky, Noam. Syntactic Structure. The Hague: Mouton, 1957.
 ——. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965.
 Culler, Jonathan. Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature. 1975. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
 Fiske, John. Introduction to Communication Studies. London: Routledge, 1990.
 Foucault, Michel. Les mots et les choses. Paris: Gallimard, 1966. Trans. as The Order of Things. 1970. New York: Vintage, 1994.
 ——. Ceci n’est pas une pipe: Deux lettres et quatre dessins de René Magritte. Montpellier: Fata Morgana, 1973. Trans. as This Is Not a Pipe. Trans. and ed. James Harkness. University of California Press, 1983.
 Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Trans. A. A. Brill. New York: Modern Library, 1950.
 ——. Wit and Its Relation to the Unconsciousness. (Trans. of Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten.) New York: Random, 1938.
 Hawkes, Terence. Structuralism and Semiotics. London: Metheun, 1977.
Jakobson, Roman. “Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics.” In Style in Language. Ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960, pp.350-77.
——. “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances.” In Selected Writings, Vol. II: Word and Language. The Hague: Mouton, 1971. 239-59. First published in 1956.
——. “Toward a Linguistic Classification of Aphasic Impairments.” In Selected Writings, Vol. II: Word and Language. The Hague: Mouton, 1971. 289-306.
——. “On Realism in Art.” In Selected Writings, Vol. III: Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry, The Hague: Mouton, 1981. 723-731. First published in Czech 1921.
——. “Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry.” In Selected Writings, Vol. III: Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry, The Hague: Mouton, 1981. First published in 1960.
 ——. “On the Relation Between Visual and Auditory signs” In Language in Literature. Cambridge: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1987. 466-473.
 Jakobson, Roman and M. Halle. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton, 1956.
 Jameson, Fredric. The Prison House of Language: A Critical Account of Structuralism and Russian Formalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.
 Jung, Carl G., et al., eds. Man and His Symbols. 1964. London: Picador, 1978.
 Lacan, Jacques. Ècrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966.
 Langer, Susanne K. Philosophy in a New Key. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957.
 ——. Feeling and Form. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1953.
 Levi-Strauss, Claude. Anthropologie structurale. Paris: Plon, 1958. Trans. as Structural Anthropology. London: Allen Lane, 1968.
 Lodge, David. The Modes of Modern Writing: Metaphor, Metonymy and the Typology of Modern Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.
 Lotman, Jurij. The Structure of the Artistic Text. 1971. Trans. Mark Susino. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music. 1987. Trans. Carolyn Abbate. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
 Mitchell, W.J.T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986.
 ——. Picture Theory. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1994.
 Rotman, Brian. Signifying Nothing: The Semiotics of Zero. London: Macmillan, 1987.
 de Saussure, Ferdinand. Courses in General Linguistics. Trans. Wade Baskin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.
 Sebeok, Thomas A. A Sign Is Just a Sign. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
 
 [Frame]

 Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concept of Pollution and Taboo. 1966. London: Routledge, 1999.
 ——. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. 1970. London: Routledge, 1996.
 Duro, Paul, ed. The Rhetoric of the Frame: Essays on the Boundaries of the Artwork. Cambridge Studies in New Art History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
 Kyndrup, Morten. Framing and Fiction: Studies in the Rhetoric of Novel, Interpretation, and History. Aarhus, Den.: Aarhus University Press. 1992.
 Stoichita, Victor I. The Self-Aware Image: An Insight into Early Modern Meta-Painting. Trans. Anne-Marie Glasheen. Cambridge Studies in New Art History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 Waugh, Patricia. Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction. London: Routledge, 1987.
 
 [Artists & Catalogue]

 Baldassari, Anne. Picasso and Photography: The Dark Mirror. Trans. Deke Dusinberre. Paris: Flammarion & Houston: The Museum of Fine Arts, 1997.
 Braun, Emily, ed. Italian Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1900-1988. Munich: Prestel-Verlag and London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1989.
 ——, ed. Giorgio de Chirico and America. New York: Hunter College of the City University of New York, 1996.
 Camfield, William A. Max Ernst: Dada and the Dawn of Surrealism. Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1993.
 Carrà, Massimo, ed. Metaphysical Art. Trans. Caroline Tisdall. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.
 Chipp, Herschel B. Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.
 de Chirico, Giorgio. The Memoirs of Giorgio de Chirico. Trans. and introd. Margaret Crosland New York: Da Capo, 1994. Trans of Memorie della mia vita. Milan: Rizzoli Editore, 1962.
——. Hebdomeros . Paris: Flammation, 1964.
 ——. de Chirico by de Chirico. New York: The New York Culture Center, 1972.
——. De Chirico: nel centenario della nascita. Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1988.
Cortenova, Giorgio, and Herscovici, eds. Da Magritte a Magritte. Milan: Gabriele Mazzotta Editore, 1991.
Cowling, Elizabeth & Jennifer Munday, Curators. On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism 1910-1930. London: Tate Gallery, 1990.
 dell’Arco, Maurizio Fagiolo, et al. De Chirico. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1982.
Giorgio de Chirico. Milan: Ente Manifestazioni Milanesi, 1970.
Giorgio de Chirico. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1983.
 Gablik, Suzi. Magritte. London: Thames and Hudson, 1970.
 Gardner, Helen, et al. Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996.
Guzzi, Domenico, et al. Un museo immaginario per Giorgio de Chirico. Rome: Carte Segrete, 1991.
 Hammacher, Abraham M. René Magritte. 1985. Trans. James Brockway. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995.
 Hoet, Jan, curator. Irony by Vision. Tokyo: Watari-Um, 1991.
 Hulten, Pontus, and Germano Celant, eds. Italian Art 1900-1945. Milan: Bompiani, 1989.
Klee et la musique. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985.
 Magritte, René. Magritte/Torczyner: Letters between Friends. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994.
 ——. Secret Affinities: Words and Image by René Magritte. Houston: The Institute of the Arts, Rice University, 1976.
 Martin, Rupert, ed. Late de Chirico 1940-76. Bristol: Arnolfini Gallery, 1985.
 Ottinger, Didier, ed. Magritte. Montreal: The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1996.
 Paquet, Marcel. Magritte: Thought Rendered Visible. Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994.
 Passeron, René. Histoire de la peinture surréaliste. Paris: Librairie Générale Française, 1968.
 Gimferrer, Pere. De Chirico. Trans. Anthony Curran. New York: Rizzoli, 1989.
 Segrete, Carte, ed. Giorgio de Chirico: Pictor Optimus. Roma: Comune di Roma, Assessorato alla Cultura, 1992.
 Soby, James Thrall. The Early Chirico. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1941.
 ——. René Magritte. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1965.
 ——. Giorgio de Chirico. Reprint Edition. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1966.
 Spies, Werner, ed. and introd. Max Ernst: A Retrospective. Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1991.
 Sylvester, David. Magritte. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.
 ——, ed. René Magritte: Catalogue raisonné. 5 vols. Milan: Electa/Fonds Mercator & The Menil Foundation, 1992-95.
 Torczyner, Harry. Magritte: Ideas and Images. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977.
 Whitfield, Sarah. Magritte. London: The South Bank Center, 1992.
 
 
 
 中文部份:


- Gimferrer, Pere。《基里訶》(Chirico)。1989。許季鴻譯。西洋近現代巨匠畫集。台北:文庫,1994。
- Gimferrer, Pere。《馬格利特》(Magritte)。1986。符泉生譯。西洋近現代巨匠畫集。台北:文庫,1993。
- 什克洛夫斯基(Viktor Shklovsky)。《散文理論》。1983。劉宗次譯。南昌:百花洲文藝,1994。
- 中川作一。《視覺藝術的社會心理》。1984。趙秀俠等譯。上海:人民美術,1991。
- 布洛克曼(J. M. Broekman)。《結構主義:莫斯科—布拉格—巴黎》。李幼蒸譯。新店:谷風,1987。
- 布爾格(Peter Bürger)。《前衛藝術理論》(Theorie der Avantgarde)。蔡佩君、徐明松譯。台北:時報,1998。
- 巴爾特(Roland Barthes)。《寫作的零度:結構主義文學理論文選》(Le Degré zero de l’ écriture)。李幼蒸譯。台北:時報,1991。
- 卡漢、狄曼(H. Kahane & P. Tidman)。《邏輯與哲學》(Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction)。劉福增編譯。台北:心理,1996。
- 弗雷澤(J. G. Frazer)。《金枝:巫術與宗教之研究》(The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion)。1922。汪培基譯。台北:桂冠,1991。
- 艾得金(Robert Atkins)。《藝術開講》(Art Speak)。黃麗絹譯。台北:藝術家,1996。
- 伊果頓(Terry Eagleton)。《文學理論導讀》(Literary Theory: An Introduction)。吳新發譯。台北:書林,1993。
- 伍思諾等(R. Wulthnow, et al.)。《文化分析》(Cultural Analysis)。王宜燕、戴育賢譯。台北:遠流,1994。
- 沃爾夫朗(Eddie Wolfram)。《拼貼藝術之歷史》(History of Collage)。傅嘉琿譯。台北:遠流,1994。
- 利希特(Hans Richter)。《達達:藝術和反藝術》(Dada: Art and Anti-Art)。吳瑪悧譯。台北:藝術家,1988。
- 克萊因(Morris Kline)。《西方文化中的數學》(Mathematics in Western Culture)。1953。張祖貴譯。台北:九章,1995。
- 杜夫海納(Mikel Dufrenne)。《美學與哲學》(Esthetique et Philosophie)。孫非譯。台北:五洲,1987。
- 里德(Herbert Read)。《現代藝術哲學》(The Philosophy of Modern Art)。孫旗譯。台北:東大,1980。
- 克勞絲(Rosalind Krauss)。《前衛的原創性》。(The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths)。連德誠譯。台北:遠流,1995。
- 佛克馬、蟻布思(Douwe Fokkema & Elrud Ibsch)。《二十世紀文學理論》(Theories of Literature in the Twentieth Century)。袁鶴翔等譯。香港:香港中文大學,1985。台北:書林,1987。
- 帕拉蒙(José M. Parramón)。《透視》(Perspectiva Para Artistas)。吳欣潔譯。台北:三民,1997。
- 契普(Herschel B. Chipp)。《現代藝術理論》(Theories of Modern Art)。余珊珊譯。台北:遠流,1995。
- 海德格(Martin Heidegger)。《林中路》(Holzwege)。孫周興譯。台北:時報,1994。
高友工、梅祖麟。〈唐詩的語意研究〉(Metaphor and Allusion in Tang Poetry)。黃宣範譯。《翻譯與語意之間》。黃宣範。台北:聯經,1976。頁133-215。
- 梅茲(Christian Metz)。《電影語言:電影符號學導論》(Essais sur la signification au cinéma)。劉森堯譯。台北:遠流,1996。
- 普多夫金(V. I. Pudovkin)。《電影技巧與電影表演》。劉森堯譯。台北:書林,1980。
- 達利、格魯茲堡、金吉拉(Darley, Glucksberg, Kinchla)。《心理學》(Psychology)。楊語芸譯。台北:桂冠,1994。
- 傅雷(Edward F. Fry)。《立體派》(Cubism)。陳品秀譯。台北:遠流,1994。
- 蓋伯利克(Suzi Gablik)。《馬格利特》(Magritte)。項幼榕譯。台北:遠流,1999。
- 費斯克(John Fisk)。《傳播符號學理論》(Introduction to Communication Studies)。張錦華等譯。台北:遠流,1995。
- 塞維(Bruno Zevi)。《建築空間論》(Architecture as Space)。張似贊譯。台北:博遠,1994。
- 鮑德威爾(David Bordwell)。《開創的電影語言:艾森斯坦的風格與詩學》(The Cinema of Eisenstein)。游惠貞譯。台北:遠流,1995。
- 魏特罕(Margaret Wertheim)。《空間地圖:從但丁的空間到網路的空間》(The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet)。薛絢譯。台北:台灣商務,1999。
- 羅茲勒(Willy Rotzler)。《物體藝術》(Objektkunst)。吳瑪悧譯。台北:遠流,1991。
- 戴維斯、赫希(Philip J. Davis & Reuben Hersh)。《笛卡爾之夢》(Descartes’ Dream: The World According to Mathematics)。1986。常庚哲等譯。台北:九章,1996。
- 王新民。《西方電影史話》。上海:上海文藝出版社,1995。
- 古添洪。《記號詩學》。台北:東大,1984。
- 李幼蒸。《人文符號學:人文科學認識論研究》。理論符號學導論卷一。台北:唐山,1996。
——。《語義符號學:意義的理論基礎》。理論符號學導論卷二。台北:唐山,1997。
——。《哲學符號學:記號的普遍理論》。理論符號學導論卷三。台北:唐山,1997。
——。《文化符號學:符號學和意識型態》。理論符號學導論卷四。台北:唐山,1997。
- 佟景韓編。《現代西方藝術美學文選:造形藝術美學卷》。台北:洪葉,1995。
- 周英雄。《結構主義與中國文學》。再版。台北:東大,1992。
- 高辛勇。《形名學與敘事理論:結構主義的小說分析法》。台北:聯經,1987。
- 俞建章、葉舒憲。《符號:語言與藝術》。台北:久大,1990。
- 曾進興主編。《語言病理學基礎第二卷》。台北:心理,1996。
- 雄獅西洋美術辭典編委會。《雄獅西洋美術辭典》。台北:雄獅,1992。
- 葉維廉。《比較詩學》。再版。台北:東大,1988。
- 劉紀蕙主編。《框架內外:藝術、文類與符號疆界》。台北:立緒,1999。
- 謝東山。《當代藝術批評的疆界》。台北:帝門藝術教育基金會,1996。
- 龔鵬程。《文化符號學》。台北:學生,1992。

期刊論文:

- 李明明。〈馬格里特式幽默的剖析〉。《藝術學》第三期(1989):165-184。
- 陳傳興。〈詩是一根煙斗—由傅柯「相擬」(Simulacre)論說起〉。《藝術學》第三期(1989):185-204。

TOP